1) What are the four quantum numbers and what do they indicate?
n is the principal quantum number and is the energy
n describes the relative electron cloud size
l is the sublevel; it describes the shape of the
m, is the orbital; it describes the orientation in
space of each orbital
s is the direction of the spin of the electron
2) If an element possesses n = 3, what are the possible l values?
are the possible m values?
if n = 3, then there are 3
the sublevels would be s=1, p=2, and d=3
m would be the orbitals
s has one orbital; 0
p has 3 orbitals; -1, 0 1
d has 5 orbitals;
-2, -1, 0, 1, 2 these would be the possible m values
3a) Write out the electron configuration for Na, S, Mo, Ne, and Ce. (The whole thing!!!)
3b) Draw the Lewis dot diagram.
3c) How many valence electrons does each of those elements have?
3d) What is the oxidation number for each of those elements?
3e) What are the quantum numbers for each of those elements?
Na 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1
Na . 1 valence
electron +1 oxidation number
n=3 L = 1 m = 0 s = +1/2
S 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p4
.. S. . 6 valence
electrons -2 oxidation number
n=3 L = 2 m = -1 s = -1/2
Mo 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
3p64s2 3d10 4p6 5s2
4d4 Mo. .
2 valence electrons +2 oxidation number, transition
n=4 L = 3 m = 1 s = +1/2
Ne 1s2 2s2 2p6
.. Ne .. 8
valence electron no oxidation number 8 is great!
2p 6 n=2
L = 2 m = 1 s = -1/2
Ce 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2
3p64s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10
5p6 6s2 4f2
. 2 valence electrons +2 oxidation
lanthanoid metal, others possible
n=4 L = 4 m = -2 s = +1/2
4) What is the charge of noble gases? Why? Where do I find noble gases
on the periodic table?
have no charge, not
usually ions, have 8 valence electrons and are considered stable
group 18 (VIII) far right column on periodic
He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Rn
5) What is the charge of halogens? Why? Where do I find them on the
when halogens form ions,
they want to gain one electron, so their charge is -1
the are on the right hand side of the periodic
table next to the noble gases group VII
F, Cl, Br, I, At
6) What is the charge of alkaline earth metals? Why?
Where do I find
them on the periodic table?
alkaline earth metals
have 2 valence electrons so their oxidation number is +2
they are the second column from the left, group
Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra
7) Why are transition metals in transition? Why do you want a list of
their charges for the test?
They have a d sublevel
which has less energy than the s level, consequently all transition
metals have 2 valence electrons.
The d sublevel electrons may prevent the atom
from spinning smoothly, the atom may lose
more than 2 electrons if it will help balance the
8) Where are the metalloids?
found to either side of the zigzag line or the staircase line
they include B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Pl, and At